Tag Archives: David Neumark

Ignoring the adverse effects of the minimum wage may cost taxpayers billions

Today the Obama administration issued a statement calling for a ‘First Job’ funding initiative to connect young Americans with jobs.

The statement laments how difficult it is for young people to find employment and emphasizes how important a first jobs is for future career success:

“After the worst economic crisis of our lifetimes, the United States is in the midst of the longest streak of private-sector job growth in our history, with more than 14 million new jobs created during the past 70 months. But for too many young people, getting a first job—a crucial step in starting their career—is challenging.

When a young person struggles to get their first job, it can have a lasting negative impact on her lifetime income as well as her motivation, pride, and self-esteem.”  

I brought up this same issue 3 months ago in a previous blog post that highlighted the differences in teenage unemployment across cities. And unsurprisingly there are substantial differences – in 2012 teenage unemployment was over 45% in Atlanta and only about 26% in Houston.

So what’s the proposal? A $5.5 BILLION grab bag of grants, skills investment, and direct wage payments to put young people to work. Naturally, the most obvious solution to the teenage unemployment problem is never mentioned – eliminating the minimum wage. In fact, nowhere is it hinted at that the minimum wage may be contributing to teenage unemployment, despite several recent studies affirming this theory.

From a 2013 study:

“Thus, for older workers, the two effects offset one another, and there is little impact on their long-term employment rate. For teenagers, the extra reduction in hiring implies that their employment rates decline. The results are very similar for males and females.”

From a 2015 study:

Using three separate state panels of administrative employment data, we find that the minimum wage reduces job growth over a period of several years”

From a 2015 study:

We find that a higher minimum wage level is associated with higher earnings, lower employment and reduced worker turnover for those in the 14–18 age group. “ (My bold)

From a 2015 study:

I apply the estimator to estimate the impact of the minimum wage on the employment rate of teenagers. I estimate an elasticity of -0.10 and reject the null hypothesis that there is no effect.”

This glaring omission is unconscionable in light of the abundant evidence that the minimum wage harms the least skilled, least experienced workers, which includes teenagers.

As a Prof. David Neumark stated in a recent WSJ op-ed:

“…let’s not pretend that a higher minimum wage doesn’t come with costs, and let’s not ignore that some of the low-skill workers the policy is intended to help will bear some of these costs.”

An all too common occurrence in US policy is that government intervention causes a problem that the government then tries to solve with additional intervention, completely ignoring the possibility that the initial intervention was the source of the problem. In this case, price controls at the bottom of the labor-market ladder have prevented young people from getting on the first rung, so now the government wants to wheel over a $5.5 billion dollar stool to give them a boost.

While this series of imprudent events is not surprising, it’s still frustrating.

Does the minimum wage increase unemployment? Ask Willie Lyons.

President Obama recently claimed:

[T]here’s no solid evidence that a higher minimum wage costs jobs, and research shows it raises incomes for low-wage workers and boosts short-term economic growth.

Students of economics may find this a curious claim. Many of them will have been assigned Steven Landsburg’s Price Theory and Applications where, on page 380, they will have read:

Overwhelming empirical evidence has convinced most economists that the minimum wage is a significant cause of unemployment, particularly among the unskilled.

Or perhaps they will have been assigned Hirschleifer, Glazer, and Hirschleifer’s widely-read text. In this case, they will have seen on page 21 that 78.9 percent of surveyed economists either “agree generally” or “agree with provisions” with the statement that “A minimum wage increases unemployment among young and unskilled workers.”

More advanced students may have encountered this January 2013 paper by David Neumark, J.M. Ian Salas, and William Wascher which assesses the latest research and concludes:

[T]he evidence still shows that minimum wages pose a tradeoff of higher wages for some against job losses for others, and that policymakers need to bear this tradeoff in mind when making decisions about increasing the minimum wage.

Some students may have even studied Jonathan Meer and Jeremy West’s hot-off-the-presses study which focuses on the effect of a minimum wage on job growth. They conclude:

[T]he minimum wage reduces net job growth, primarily through its effect on job creation by expanding establishments. These effects are most pronounced for younger workers and in industries with a higher proportion of low-wage workers.

Students of history, however, will be aware of another testimonial. It comes not from an economist but from an elevator operator. Her name was Willie Lyons and in 1918, at the age of 21, she had a job working for the Congress Hall Hotel in Washington, D.C. She made $35 per month, plus two meals a day. According to the court, she reported that “the work was light and healthful, the hours short, with surroundings clean and moral, and that she was anxious to continue it for the compensation she was receiving.”

Then, on September 19, 1918, Congress passed a law establishing a District of Columbia Minimum Wage Board and setting a minimum wage for any woman or child working in the District. Though it would have been happy to retain Ms. Lyons at her agreed-upon wage, the Hotel decided that her services were not worth the higher wage and let her go.

Ms. Lyons sued the Board, claiming that the minimum wage violated her “liberty of contract” under the Due Process clauses of the 5th and 14th Amendments.* As the Supreme Court would describe it:

The wages received by this appellee were the best she was able to obtain for any work she was capable of performing, and the enforcement of the order, she alleges, deprived her of such employment and wages. She further averred that she could not secure any other position at which she could make a living, with as good physical and moral surroundings, and earn as good wages, and that she was desirous of continuing and would continue the employment, but for the order of the board.

For a time, the Supreme Court agreed with Ms. Lyons, finding that the minimum wage did, indeed, violate her right to contract.

The minimum wage was eliminated and she got her job back.


*Legal theorists might well claim that the Immunities and/or Privileges clauses of these amendments would have been more reasonable grounds, but those had long been gutted by the Supreme Court.

Tax Foundation Releases New State Business Tax Climate Index

On Wednesday the Tax Foundation released the updated State Business Tax Climate Index by Mark Robyn. Wyoming, South Dakota, and Nevada ranked highest on the index because they have low overall tax burdens and tax policies that introduce minimal distortions to business behavior.

The three states at the bottom of the ranking — New Jersey, New York, and California — were also the worst-ranked states last year. Unsurprisingly, these three states are also experiencing domestic outmigration as individuals and businesses leave for locations with lower tax burdens. A study by Jed Kolko, David Neumark, and Marisol Cuella Mejia demonstrates that the SBTCI is one of the most accurate indexes for predicting economic outcomes.


Illinois had the largest change in ranking over last year’s, dropping 12 spots. Robyn writes on the importance of tax policy in business decisions:

Anecdotes about the impact of state tax systems on business investment are plentiful. In Illinois early last decade, hundreds of millions of dollars of capital investments were delayed when then-Governor Blagojevich proposed a hefty gross receipts tax. Only when the legislature resoundingly defeated the bill did the investment resume. In 2005, California-based Intel decided to build a multi-billion dollar chip-making facility in Arizona due to its favorable corporate income tax system. In 2010 Northrup Grumman chose to move its headquarters to Virginia over Maryland, citing the better business tax climate. Anecdotes such as these reinforce what we know from economic theory: taxes matter to businesses, and those places with the most competitive tax systems will reap the benefits of business-friendly tax climates.

The Tax Foundation is not alone in finding these states relatively lacking in economic freedom. Indexes developed by the Mercatus Center and the American Legislative Exchange Council also ranked these states as among the least economically competitive in the country.

While lawmakers may be tempted to try to improve their states’ rankings in these types of indexes with special business tax breaks or increasing state spending, all three studies demonstrate that the best way to improve a state’s competitiveness ranking is to provide a climate of low, stable taxes that do not favor specific industries.


Economically Free States see 30 Percent Faster Job Growth

In my last post, I mentioned a couple of business climate indices. There is a new paper by Jed Kolko, David Neumark, and Marisol Cuellar Mejia which examines these types of indices in depth. They find that states with high rankings in economic freedom indices tend to have faster job growth, greater wage growth, and greater growth in gross state product.

There are a lot of indexes out there that attempt to rank states in terms of their business climates and the results of their rankings often conflict. As the authors write:

[A]cross all 50 states, every state but one ranks in the top 20 in at least one index, and every state ranks in the bottom half in at least one index.

However, it turns out that when you dig deeper, the indices can be grouped into two general categories and there is actually a lot of consistency within these categories.

Economic Freedom Indices:

The first category examines what the authors call “taxes and costs” and what I might call economic freedom. It includes factors such as the cost of doing business, the size of government, tax rates and tax burden, regulation, litigation, and welfare and transfer payments. The following five indices tend to capture these types of factors:

The economic freedom component of the Freedom in the 50 States Index by Sorens and Ruger would almost certainly fall into this category too, but since the authors focused on indices that have been around for several years, they do not include it.

Productivity and Quality of Life:

The second group of indices tends to measure what the authors call “productivity or quality of life.” These indices include measures of quality of life; equity; employment, earnings and job quality; business incubation; human capital; infrastructure; and technology, knowledge jobs, and digital economy. It appears to me that a number of the indices in this group focus on outcomes (are there a lot of “knowledge jobs in the state”?) while others in this group focus on policy inputs aimed at improving the quality of life (has the government invested in business incubation and human capital?). The indices that tend to fall into this category include:

  • The State New Economy Index by the Progressive Policy Institute, the Information, Technology and Innovation Foundation, and the Kauffman Foundation,
  • The Development Report Card for the States—Performance by the Corporation for Enterprise Development,
  • The Development Report Card for the States—Development Capacity, also by the Corporation for Enterprise Development,
  • The Development Report Card for the States—Business Vitality, also by the Corporation for Enterprise Development, and
  • The State Competitiveness Index by the Beacon Hill Institute.

The distinction isn’t always clear cut and I’d note that the Beacon Hill State Competitiveness Index, for one, also seems to capture a lot of economic freedom-type factors. The authors categorize an eleventh index, the Fiscal Policy Report Card on the Nation’s Governors by the Cato Institute, as falling somewhere between these two broad groups.

The authors examined the degree to which these indices predicted job growth, wages, and Gross State Product (controlling for other factors that might influence economic growth, including weather and historical industry mix). They found that the quality of life indices generally do a poor job of predicting these positive economic outcomes. In contrast, the economic freedom (aka “low taxes and few regulatory costs”) indices are strong predictors of job growth, wages, and GSP. In particular, the authors found “the corporate income tax structure and base matter for wage and GSP growth, though not necessarily for employment growth.” furthermore, the relationship, “does not appear to be driven by the top marginal tax rate, but rather by other factors such as the simplicity of corporate taxation…” They also found that greater welfare and transfer payment spending was associated with slower economic growth (they have reason to dismiss most concerns about reverse causality; but I’ll leave that to the reader to investigate).

The two indices with the best record for predicting economic progress were the Economic Freedom of North America index by Fraser (“the strongest and most robust evidence”) and the State Business Tax Climate by the Tax Foundation. Looking at the Fraser index, they found that moving a state from the 40th to the 10th place in terms of economic freedom “would increase the rate of growth of employment by 0.317 percentage point.” Given that the mean employment growth rate is 1.15 percent, this amounts to about 30 percent faster employment growth.

Lastly, the authors found that “footloose” industries such as manufacturing that are less-tied to the geography of the state tend to be more responsive to the policies captured by these indices.


Update: I have fixed a broken link to the article.  Thanks to alert readers! 

More on the Dangers of Inequitable Taxation

Last week, I opined on the problems with inequitable taxation: when two similarly-situated firms or individuals encounter different tax regimes, there are perverse incentives to alter economic behavior so as to lower one’s tax bill. This means individuals and firms make decisions based on the whims of politicians and lobbyists rather than on the values of consumers and investors. The result is inefficiency and waste.

A new paper by Daria Burnes, David Neumark, and Michelle White explores another problem with inequitable taxation: governments themselves can alter their behavior as a way to steer economic activity toward those industries that face higher rates of taxation. The authors note that local-option sales taxes “give local government officials an incentive to encourage retailing, since retailing generates more sales tax revenue than other land uses.”

How do they do this?

[T]hey can zone additional land for retail use, they can allow land zoned for retailing to be developed at higher density levels, and they can reduce the often‐formidable set of approvals and inspections that are required for construction or renovation. They can use all of the same policy instruments and practices in reverse to discourage other land uses.

They find that local officials in higher sales-tax jurisdictions do seem to concentrate on attracting large “big-box” stores and shopping centers. The effect is larger in the center of counties, where inter-county competition is weakest. Moreover, they find that high-tax jurisdictions tend to discourage manufacturing employment.