The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities has a new analysis highlighting the $35 billion bill that 20 states owe to the federal government for covering benefit extensions. The report points to one of the design problems with the current program. The joint federal-state unemployment insurance program (UI) is financed via a payroll tax. States have kept the tax too low and thus did not build up enough reserves in the UI fund to weather the recession. This isn’t the first time UI has run into this problem, in fact it’s a perennial issue. Alan Krueger of Princeton provides a summary of some of the structural weakness in UI, a program unchanged since the New Deal.
While it is widely recognized that UI is structurally broken, solutions vary considerably. In a paper for The Brookings Institute, Rosen and Kletzer suggest “strengthening the federal role” in UI that would require states to harmonize eligibility criteria and benefit levels, increased eligibility and benefits financed by a higher FUTA tax. In addition Rosen and Kletzer propose a wageloss insurance program for those who become employed at a lower wage than their previous job; and lastly private accounts for the self-employed.
The Tax Foundation proposes another set of fixes. These include loosening up restrictions in the program to allow states to experiment with alternative programs, as well as the establishment of individual accounts.
In September the Obama Administration proposed a ‘sweeping reform’ of the current program. Included was the wageloss subsidy for the employed. In last week’s SOTU the president stressed transforming UI into an employment program via job training services. But these new appendages avoid the problem that UI was created to address: how to smooth private consumption during times of temporary and involuntary unemployment?
What about a private insurance model? Trooper Sanders makes the case at The Huffington Post.