Tag Archives: No Child Left Behind

Race to the Top a Mixed Bag

After Delaware and Tennessee were awarded funds from the newest federal aid to education program, Race to the Top (RTTT), many states are still competing in an attempt to be awarded funds in the second round.

RTTT has several advantages over the former federal education program, No Child Left Behind, in that Race to the Top encourages innovation and competition at the state level rather than prescribing one top-down solution for all schools.

However, RTTT suffers from the problems that will plague any top-down education reform, in that it exponentially increases the bureaucracy of education. Because federal regulators do not have the local knowledge necessary to evaluate programs in individual schools, they must rely on statistics to evaluate school performance. A Washington Post blogger opines:

Part of the problem for D.C. may have been the trouble it has had in developing a data information system. Millions of dollars have been spent over the years but still no real system exists. And using “data” to drive reform is one of Duncan’s core principles, even though we all know that data is vulnerable to manipulation.

[…]

Duncan uses a lot of jargon too, but it is easy to understand what he is trying to do with education: expand charter schools, increase student standardized testing, link teacher pay to test scores and close down the nation’s lowest-performing schools.

Unfortunately, what is not easy to understand is why President Obama’s education secretary is pushing those initiatives. This administration was supposed to bring some reason back into education reform after the failed era of No Child Left Behind.

Furthermore, the lack of local knowledge regarding schools at the federal level forces federal officials to allocate RTTT funds based on metrics that may not reflect the actual quality of state and local education reforms. The lack of transparency behind the allocation of federal funds led Colorado Governor Bill Ritter to consider dropping out of the second round of the competition. The New York Times reports:

Colorado, which had hoped to win $377 million, ended in 14th place. Now Mr. Ritter says the scoring by anonymous judges seemed inscrutable, some Coloradans view the contest as federal intrusion and the governor has not decided whether to reapply for the second round.

“It was like the Olympic Games, and we were an American skater with a Soviet judge from the 1980s,” Mr. Ritter said.

Colorado is not the only state where the initial results of the Obama administration’s signature school improvement initiative, known as Race to the Top, have left a sour taste. Many states are questioning the criteria by which winners were chosen, wondering why there were only two that won and criticizing a last-minute cap on future awards.

RTTT’s emphasis on accountability and competition between schools offer some improvement over No Child Left Behind’s focus on multiple-choice standardized testing. However, RTTT’s failures so far demonstrate the reasons that education policy should not be managed at the federal level.

Schools at the edge of the stimulus cliff

Last year’s $787 billion stimulus included $100 billion for education meant to cushion state and school district budgets. As anticipated, state and local revenues haven’t rebounded and federal funds will be spent at the end of the school year. An analysis done by Rutgers University shows the “largest-ever federal infusion of education money” will leave states in the same boat as last year, forced to choose some mix of tax hikes and spending cuts.

When faced with unpalatable options states may find they are open to innovation: allowing more competition through charter schools and vouchers to bring down public school spending.

Interestingly, there is a mix of opposition to the next federal infusion of $4 billion in “Race to the Top Funds” (RTTT).

Some teachers’ unions oppose RTTT because funds require states institute more charter schools and “pay for performance” requirements. Texas Governor Rick Perry rejects Race to the Top for different reasons. Federal money (whatever its intent) means more federal rules, higher costs, and less state and local autonomy to set education policy. Texas likes its state education standards and the state would be penalized for not adopting the federal rules that come with accepting RTTT grants.

For RTTT to be an improvement over the top-down standards of No Child Left Behind, funds must not prop up the status quo, but be used to foster real competition and variety in the provision of education.

(2/9/10 Update: For more on the subject of education and competition see our recent Mercatus on Policy with Jerrod Anderson and Johan van der Walt.)

Is the U.S. Senate Obsolete?

Syndicated columnist Neal Pierce has been writing about state and local affairs since at lease the 1970s. In a recent column, he asks, “Are State Governments Obsolete?” It might have been more appropriate to ask whether state governments actually exist — at least in the traditional constitutional sense. Blessed by the Supreme Court and other judicial rulings, state governments have become administrative appendages of the federal government.

In one area after another in the twentieth century — matters of transportation, public health, land use control, education, wildlife management, etc. — the federal government assumed powers that had traditionally been reserved to the states. States might still have an administrative role, but they are now working under a very tight federal leash.

The sweeping environmental laws of the 1970s shifted control over clean air and water to the federal government. The states were, to be sure, left to administer air and water pollution laws day to day but under federally approved programs, leaving real control in federal hands. The Endangered Species Act not only federalized significant parts of wildlife management but also asserted federal authority over large areas of state and local land use. No Child Left Behind moved a large step towards the full federalization of education in the United States.

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